Il Profeta è un individuo ritenuto in grado si mettersi in contatto con un Essere Divino e affermando di parlare per conto di quell’Entità superiore, servendo da intermediario con l’umanità consegnando il Messaggio o l’insegnamento dalla fonte soprannaturale alle altre persone.
Il Messaggio che il Profeta riferisce è chiamato profezia, questa trasporta, almeno nelle Fedi Abramitiche, un Messaggio ben aldilà di una semplice previsione, augurio, o pronostico e, soprattutto nei Nevi’im (Profeti) della TaNaKh, spesso affrontando questioni di giustizia sociale.
I profeti e la profezia sono parte integrante dell’Ebraismo e di tutte le Religioni Abramitiche. Abramo, Isacco e Giacobbe, gli antenati del popolo di DIO, erano Profeti. Mosè, colui sul quale è discesa la Legge, era considerato ai suoi tempi il più grande Profeta mai vissuto. Nelle generazioni successive, i Profeti e le Profetesse guidavano le persone, le ammonivano quando sbagliavano e le davano conforto quando le cose si facevano difficili. La tradizione Ebraica attraverso il Libro delle tradizioni del Talmud riporta che c’erano 48 profeti e sette profetesse del popolo Ebraico a quel tempo. Ora, il Talmud definisce che c’erano molti altri Profeti (in realtà ben 1.200.000) ma solo quei Profeti il cui Messaggio era rilevante per le generazioni future sono entrati a far parte di questa lista.
Il Dono della profezia è esistito in molte altre culture attraverso la storia, non soltanto il Giudaismo, il Cristianesimo, l’Islam, ma anche nella filosofia Greca antica, lo Zoroastrismo, il Manicheismo e molti altri. I profeti sono tradizionalmente considerati come aventi un ruolo nella società che promuove il cambiamento a causa dei loro Messaggi ed azioni che spesso trasmettono il dispiacere di DIO riguardo al comportamento delle persone e all’eventuale scomparsa del loro sistema sociale e culturale nel suo insieme.
Questa è la selezione di ASH (Abrahamic Study Hall) dei 20 più grandi Profeti di tutti i tempi, non in ordine cronologico e nemmeno per rilevanza.
Tra diverse religioni può essere condivisa la fiducia di molti “pilastri” della Fede; con amore e tolleranza si possono denotare più attributi in comune con il vostro vicino “straniero” che con un fratello o una sorella perduti.
Corano 41, 34 Buone e cattive azioni non sono di certo uguali. Respingi il male con qualcosa di migliore [buono]; E vedrai che colui dal quale ti divideva l’inimicizia diventerà il tuo più caro amico.
And the LORD spoke to Abraham: ‘Go for yourself from your land, from your birthplace and from the house of your father, to the land that I will show you.
(Book of Genesis Capitolo 12 Versetto 1)
With this simple instruction, we are introduced to Abraham and his seed, who take the central role in the Bible. The Bible is full of Divine communication with Abraham. When GOD told him that He was planning to destroy the evil cities of Sodom and Gomorra, Abraham pleaded with GOD, attempting to bargain with Divine Justice. When Abraham was worried over his future, GOD promised him a son. However, the crowning achievement of the Abraham-GOD relationship came when GOD tested Abraham by telling him sacrifice his beloved son, Isaac, and Abraham was ready to follow unquestioningly.
Yet, as great as Abraham was, the sages say that his wife was an even greater prophetess.
As the wife of Abraham, Sarah was an equal partner in his efforts to spread monotheistic beliefs and morality. Abraham led the men, and Sarah shepherded the women. She was originally named Yiscah, but Abraham called her Sarai (“my princess/superior”) because she was superior to him in her prophetic abilities. When she was 89 years old, GOD commanded that her name be changed to Sarah (which means “princess”) and Abram (“exalted father”) become Abraham (“father of many nations”), and they were soon blessed with a son, Isaac.
Sarah was so Holy that her bread would remain fresh all week, her Shabbat candles would burn until the following Friday, and a cloud would hover above her tent. In telling Sarah’s age at the time of her passing, the verse states that her life was “100 years, and 20 years, and 7 years.” The sages explain that when she was 100, she was as pure of sin as a maiden of 20; and when she was 20, she was as beautiful as an innocent 7-year-old.
Abraham and Sarah’s descendants made their way down to Egypt, where they were enslaved by Pharaoh. In those bitter times, a little girl named Miriam (which means “bitter”) was born to Amram and Yocheved. Her father was the leader of the generation and her mother was a busy midwife. Determined not to have more children for Pharaoh to slay, Miriam’s parents separated. Miriam divined that they were destined to give birth to the child who would lead the people out of slavery, and she convinced them to remarry. From that union came Moses, the redeemer of Israel.
Miriam continued to believe in a better future, even when her father doubted her prophecy. When the Israelites left Egypt and crossed the Red Sea, leaving the Egyptians behind, Miriam led the women in song and dance. And due to Miriam’s merit, GOD provided the people with a traveling well for most of the 40 years that they were in the desert.
Maimonides called him the “Father of all Prophets,” asserting that Moses alone was “chosen by GOD from all mankind.” GOD spoke to Moses from within a burning bush and told him to go to Egypt to redeem the people from Egypt. Ten plagues and one dramatic sea crossing later, Moses went up to Mount Sinai, where GOD communicated the 10 Commandments. Moses spent 40 days atop the mountain, during which GOD dictated and Moses recorded the Torah, the foundational book of Judaism, also known as the Five Books of Moses.
While other prophets only heard from GOD intermittently, often in a dreamlike state, Moses would speak to GOD at any time in a most personal manner. In the words of the Torah:
“And there was no other Prophet who arose in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew Face to face.”
It’s true that no Prophet arose in Israel like Moses. However, the sages tell us there was one such prophet among the gentiles. Thus, even though he technically does not belong on a list of Jewish prophets, we will still share a bit about Balaam.
Balaam was hired by King Balak to curse the Israelites on their way out of Egypt. Balaam ignored GOD’s warnings, the presence of an Angel blocking his way, and even the miracle of a talking donkey as he eagerly hastened to help Balak with his diabolical scheme. But instead of curses, all Balaam was able to say were blessings for the people of Israel, including beautiful prophecies about the Era of Moshiach. It is from Balaam’s prophecies that we have the famous verse
“How goodly are your tents, O Jacob, your dwelling places, O Israel!”
which many Jews say every morning at the start of their daily prayers.
Joshua was Moses’ devoted student, who “never left the tent [of Moses].” When Moses chose 12 spies to scout out the Promised Land, Joshua was one of two scouts who remained faithful to the mission. And when Moses was nearing the end of his 120 years on earth, GOD told him to select Joshua as a successor. Joshua faithfully led the people into the Land. Through him, GOD orchestrated the miracle of the crumbling walls of Jericho and the vanquishing of the heathen tribes who occupied Canaan at the time. Joshua exhorted the people to remain faithful to the Torah and to GOD, and his leadership is recorded in the Book of Joshua.
Deborah the Prophetess ruled Israel from under a date tree (tomer Devorah) in the land of Ephraim. One reason for this open-air office was that she was wary of being alone with men who came to seek her counsel, and therefore chose to meet them in plain sight. Scripture describes her as “a woman of flames (lapidot).” The sages understood this to mean that she had the honor of making wicks for the Temple menorah.
She conveyed GOD’s Message to General Barak that he should go to war against the Canaanites, who had been oppressing the people of Israel. Barak agreed to go to war only if Deborah would go with him. She obliged, the Israelites won (with the help of Yael, another brave woman), and Deborah sang a song to thank GOD for His deliverance. The land was then tranquil for 40 years.
8. Chanah (Hannah)
Chanah was married to a Prophet named Elkanah. Chanah had no offspring, but her husband’s other wife, Peninah, was blessed with many children. One holiday, she was so saddened that she went to the Tabernacle and wept, silently praying. She promised GOD that if she would be blessed with a son, she would give him to GOD all the days of his life. Her prayer was unusual in that it was silent, and Eli, the High Priest at the time, thought she was drunk. When Chanah explained what she was doing, he was impressed and agreed that she was correct. In fact, many laws of Jewish prayer are derived from Chanah’s prayer.
Hannah (Hebrew: חַנָּה Ḥannāh) was the mother of Samuel, and one of the wives of Elkanah mentioned in the First Book of Samuel.
Samuel was the miracle baby who was born to Chanah and Elkanah. When he was weaned, his mother brought him to the Tabernacle to be raised in holiness by Eli the High Priest, as per her promise to GOD (“NZR“”nazireo“=”consacrato”). One night, GOD called to Samuel, and thus began a lifetime of devotion. Samuel would regularly travel throughout the Land of Israel to judge the people and guide them.
When the people, suffering at the hands of Philistine enemies, requested a king to lead them, Samuel heeded their wish and anointed Saul. After Saul failed to remain faithful to GOD, Samuel anointed David to succeed him. Even after he appointed the kings, Samuel continued to judge, guide and teach the people. He wrote several Books of the Bible, including the book that bears his name. He lived a rich and busy life until he passed away at the age of 52.
The sages say that Samuel was equal in stature to Moses, but there was a difference. While Moses needed to go to the Tent of Meeting to hear GOD’s Voice, GOD came to Samuel wherever he was. This reflected their leadership styles. Moses would remain in his place, and the people would come seek is counsel. Samuel, on the other hand, would travel to the people, meeting them wherever they were.
King David began his career as a humble shepherd boy, scorned and rejected by his brothers and sisters. Even when Samuel anointed him and he displayed his bravery by slaying the giant Goliath, he still faced rejection from many—including Saul.
After he was accepted as king, he still faced challenges from many, including his own children. He had problems among his wives and other tragedies in his family. Yet, David remained faithful to GOD, sometimes to the degree that others saw as him as childish. Known as the “Sweet Singer of Israel,” David composed many praises to GOD, including the Book of Psalms.
Abigail was the wise and beautiful wife of Nabal, a stingy man who was as tough as a dog. After Nabal, who was as rich as he was bad, refused to give provisions to David and his men, Abigail gave them bread, wine, meat and dried fruits, and convinced David not to kill her husband. According to the Talmud, she did so using proofs from Jewish law. Ten days later, Nabal died and David and Abigail married. Tradition tells us that Abigail did more than just say wise words, but that she actually prophesied to David.
Of David’s many children, Solomon was chosen to succeed him as king. Shortly after ascending to the throne, Solomon asked GOD for Wisdom, and
“GOD gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceedingly much, and largeness of heart, as the sand that is on the seashore.”
Like his father before him, Solomon wrote beautifully, and he composed the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and more.
A great leader, Solomon reigned over Israel in a period of plenty and strength, the likes of which had never been seen before and were not experienced again.
Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem, a gleaming edifice where sacrifices would be brought and the people would gather thrice yearly to “see” GOD and be seen by Him.
Despite his great Wisdom, Solomon married many princesses from foreign lands (according to the Bible 700 wives and 300 concubines; 1 King, 11) , who introduced idol worship and other elements of their pagan cultures to his palace. As a result, GOD told Solomon He would divide the Kingdom. Indeed, after Solomon’s death, the 10 Northern Tribes were ruled by Jeroboam from the tribe of Ephraim. And here it begun the division and the split that still in this modern era didn’t ended, the separation between Israelites (intended as the “Nations of the World”) and the Jews (Juda, the left tribe of Israel).
According to tradition, Elijah the Prophet visits every Jewish home on Passover night and is present whenever a Jewish child is circumcised in the form of an Angel. But Elijah was a flesh-and-blood man, a Prophet who performed miracles and admonished monarchs who did not follow in GOD’s Ways. In a famous showdown on Mount Carmel, he demonstrated the falseness of the Baal cult and the truth of Judaism. Elijah ascended to heaven in a fiery chariot before the eyes of his star pupil Elisha.
Before Elijah’s ascent to Heaven, Elisha requested that he be granted a double measure of the Divine spirit of his Master. This was granted, and Scripture records many miracles that Elisha (often called the “man of GOD”) performed: sweetening bitter waters, causing a poor widow’s oil to fill countless flasks, bringing back to life the son of a woman from Shunam, and curing the Aramite general Naaman’s leprosy are just some examples.
Best known for the book that bears his name, Isaiah foresaw the terrible tragedies that would befall the people if they continued their corrupt, idolatrous and hedonistic ways. But all was not doom and gloom. In fact, the 7 readings of comfort that Jews read after the 9th of Av (the saddest day of the year) are taken from the latter section of Isaiah. “Console, console My people,” he says in the Name of GOD:
“Speak to the heart of Jerusalem and call to her, for she has become full [from] her host, for her iniquity has been appeased.”
Born to priestly stock, Jeremiah was reluctant to become a Prophet. Indeed, he suffered terribly for sharing the uncomfortable truth that Jerusalem would soon fall and the people would be exiled. In addition to the Book of Jeremiah, he composed the Book of Lamentations (Eichah), which mourned the destruction yet to come.
Indeed, Jeremiah lived to see the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile of her children.
Ezekiel lived in Babylon among the Jews who had been exiled prior to the destruction of the First Temple. Like the other Prophets, he often painted a graphic and terrifying picture of the consequences of their actions. Yet, he also shared glorious depictions of good things yet to come. It is Ezekiel who shared a vision of the Third Temple, yet to be built. He was granted the dramatic experience of the valley of dry bones coming to life, and he was then told to join together two sticks, demonstrating the future unification of Israel and Judah under King Moshiach.
A faithful shepherd of his people, Ezekiel passed away in exile, in Babylon, and there he is buried.
Known from the short Book of Jonah, Jonah is best remembered for surviving in the belly of a large fish. When GOD told him to prophesy to the (non-Jewish) city of Nineveh that they could save themselves from destruction if they would repent, he refused to do as he was told. Instead, he chose to board a boat to Tarshish. Due to an unusual storm, the crew of the ship realized that Jonah was trouble, and Jonah had them throw him overboard, where he was swallowed by a giant fish.
Three prayerful days later, Jonah found himself on dry land and headed off to Nineveh. Heeding Jonah’s call for immediate repentance, the people complied, but Jonah was unhappy. After GOD miraculously provided and then withheld a kikayon bush, Jonah finally got it: GOD wants us to improve because He loves us.
Daniel was a celebrated Jewish scholar and master interpreter of dreams who was exiled to Babylon after the destruction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. He is famous for successfully interpreting the proverbial “writing on the wall” and miraculously surviving the lions’ den.
Daniel is one of the few prophets who wrote his book in Aramaic, the language that was commonly spoken among the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The Book of Daniel has many cryptic prophecies that contain fantastic creatures and dramatic events, which are clearly metaphorical hints to future events.
Interestingly, there is a discussion whether or not Daniel is considered a bona fide Prophet.
The only woman to author a Book of the Bible, Esther was the Jewish girl who rose to the occasion and saved the Jewish people—then exiled in Persia—from the wicked Haman, who wished to wipe them out in a single day.
Taken to the king’s palace against her will, Esther used her position as Queen to expose Haman as a scheming scoundrel, and her people were saved. Working together with her cousin Mordechai, she had the Book of Esther recorded for all posterity, to be read every year on Purim, the day the Jews celebrated after their enemies had been vanquished.