Lode a DIO: AlleluYA e AlhamduLILLAH

La lode a DIO è il manifesto ringraziamento e l’’adorazione del credente nei confronti di DIO, celebrando così la Misericordia, la Bontà e la Grazia del Creatore.
(esempio: “Sei arrivato fin qui sano e salvo. Lode a DIO).

Lodare DIO rende ogni circostanza delle nostre vite completa, essenziale e particolarmente degna, l’’atto della lode è giustamente dovuto solo ed in maniera esclusiva a DIO.
Ebrei , Cristiani e Musulmani hanno origine e tradizioni molto simili, anche se durante secoli hanno sempre più percorso strade interpretative differenti, provando così ad allontanarsi tra loro; ma comunque in tutte le fedi Abramitiche l’espressione è molto conosciuta ed utilizzata.

Tradizione Ebraica e Cristiana:

Alleluia, Hallelujah o Halleluyah è la traslitterazione della parola Ebraica הַלְּלוּיָהּ (ebraico tradizionale Halləluya), composta da Hallelu e Yah, che si traduce letteralmente “preghiamo/lodiamo (הַלְּלוּ) YHWH (Yah יָהּ)”, dove Yah è la forma abbreviata di YHWH (nome proprio di DIO, indicato con il tetragramma יהוה).

La parola è usata 24 volte nella Bibbia Ebraica, specialmente nel libro dei Salmi (Salmi 113-118), dove inizia e termina una serie di Salmi e quattro volte nella traslitterazione greco nel libro dell’Apocalisse nel Nuovo Testamento.
La parola è di uso comune nelle liturgie cristiane, specialmente quella cattolica e ortodossa e fa parte del vocabolario di molte lingue europee e anche extraeuropee.

Per molti cristiani, Alleluia è la parola più gioiosa per esprimere lode e acclamare DIO. In molti riti non viene recitato o cantato nel tempo di Quaresima o in altri tempi penitenziali, quando è sostituito da un’acclamazione.
La parola ebraica Halleluyah è stata preservata intatta dai primi cristiani sia col suo suono originario sia con il significato originario di massimo ringraziamento, gioia e trionfo (per i cristiani simile ad Osanna).
L’Alleluia compare nell’antica Liturgia di San Giacomo, in greco, ancora oggi in uso nel Patriarcato di Gerusalemme, e nella Chiesa maronita – nella sua versione in lingua siriaca.

Nella Bibbia

הַלְלוּיָהּ (Alleluja) si trova in 23 versetti del Libro dei Salmi (104-106, 111-117, 135, 145-150), ma due volte in Salmo 150: 6. Inizia e conclude un numero di salmi. La traslitterazione greca ἀλληλούϊα (allēlouia) appare nella Bibbia dei Settanta (LXX) di questi Salmi, in Tobì 13:17 e 3 Maccabei 7:13, e quattro volte in Apocalisse 19: 1-6, il grande canto di lode a DIO per il suo trionfo su la prostituta di Babilonia.

Interpretazioni

In the Hebrew Bible hallelujah is actually a two-word phrase, not one word. The first part, hallelu, is the second-person imperative masculine plural form of the Hebrew verb hillel. However, “hallelujah” means more than simply “praise Jah” or “praise Yah”, as the word hallel in Hebrew means a joyous praise in song, to boast in GOD. Hallel could also refer to someone who acts madly or foolishly.
The second part, Yah, is a shortened form of YHWH, the name for the Creator. The name ceased to be pronounced in Second Temple Judaism, by the 3rd century BC due to religious beliefs. The correct pronunciation is not known, however, it is sometimes rendered by Christians as “Yahweh” or “Jehovah”. The Septuagint translates Yah as Kyrios (the LORD), because of the Jewish custom of replacing the sacred name with “ADONAI“, meaning “the LORD”.

In Psalm 150:6 the Hebrew reads kol han’shamah t’hallel yah halelu-yah; the first “hallel” and “yah” in this verse are two separate words, and the word “yah” is translated as “the LORD”, or “YHWH”. In Psalm 148:1 the Hebrew says “הללו יה halelu yah”. It then says “halelu eth-YHWH” as if using “yah” and “YHWH” interchangeably. The word “Yah” appears by itself as a divine name in poetry about 49 times in the Hebrew Bible (including halelu yah), such as in Psalm 68:4–5 “who rides upon the skies by his name Yah” and Exodus 15:2 “Yah is my strength and song”. It also often appears at the end of Israelite theophoric names such as Isaiah “yeshayah(u), Yahweh is salvation” and Jeremiah “yirmeyah(u), Yahweh is exalted”.
The word hallelujah occurring in the Psalms is therefore a request for a congregation to join in praise toward GOD. It can be translated as “Praise Yah” or “Praise Jah, you people”.

Most well-known English versions of the Hebrew Bible translate the Hebrew “Hallelujah” (as at Psalm 150:1) as two Hebrew words, generally rendered as “Let us praise” and “the LORD“, but the second word is given as “Yah” in the Lexham English Bible and Young’s Literal Translation, “Jah” in the New World Translation, “Jehovah” in the American Standard Version, and “Hashem” in the Artscroll Tanach (Orthodox Jewish). Instead of a translation, the transliteration “Hallelujah” is used by JPS Tanakh, International Standard Version, Darby Translation, GOD’s Word Translation, Holman Christian Standard Bible, and The Message, with the spelling “Halleluyah” appearing in the Complete Jewish Bible. The Greek-influenced form “Alleluia” appears in Wycliffe’s Bible, the Knox Version and the New Jerusalem Bible.

In the great song of praise to GOD for his triumph over the Whore of Babylon in chapter 19 of the New Testament book of Revelation, the Greek word ἀλληλούϊα (allēluia), a transliteration of the same Hebrew word, appears four times, as an expression of praise rather than an exhortation to praise. In English translations this is mostly rendered as “Hallelujah”, but as “Alleluia” in several translations, while a few have “Praise the LORD”, “Praise GOD”, “Praise our GOD”, or “Thanks to our GOD”.
The linguist Ghil’ad Zuckermann argues that the word Hallelujah is usually not replaced by a praise God! translation due to the speakers’ belief in iconicity, their perception that there is something intrinsic about the relationship between the sound of the signifier (the word) and what it signifies (its meaning).[20]:62

Usage by Jews

The word “hallelujah” is sung as part of the Hallel Psalms (interspersed between Psalms 113–150). In Tractate Shabbat of the Talmud, Rabbi Yose is quoted as saying that the Pesukei dezimra Psalms should be recited daily. Psalms 145-150, also known as the Hallel of pesukei dezimra, are included to fulfill this requirement in the liturgy for the traditional Jewish Shacharit (morning) service. In addition, on the three Pilgrimage Festivals, the new moon and Hanukkah, Psalms 113-118 are recited. The latter psalms are known simply as Hallel with no additional qualification.
Psalms 146:10, ending with Halleluja, is the third and final biblical quotation in the Kedushah. This expanded version of the third blessing in the Amidah is said during the Shacharit and Mincha (morning and afternoon) services when there is a minyan present.

Usage by Christians

For most Christians, “Hallelujah” is considered a joyful word of praise to GOD, rather than an injunction to praise Him. “The Alleluia” refers to a traditional chant, combining the word with verses from the Psalms or other scripture. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, and in many older Protestant denominations, the Alleluia, along with the Gloria in excelsis DEO, is not spoken or sung in liturgy during the season of Lent, instead being replaced by a Lenten acclamation, while in Eastern Churches, Alleluia is chanted throughout Lent at the beginning of the Matins service, replacing the Theos Kyrios, which is considered more joyful. At the Easter service and throughout the Pentecostarion, Christos anesti is used in the place where Hallelujah is chanted in the western rite expressing happiness.

In contemporary worship among many Protestants, expressions of “Hallelujah” and “Praise the LORD” are acceptable spontaneous expressions of joy, thanksgiving and praise towards GOD, requiring no specific prompting or call or direction from those leading times of praise and singing.

Tradizione Musulmana:

Nell’Islam con l’espressione Al-ḥamdu li-llāh o Alhamdulillah (in arabo الحَمْدُ للهِ), spesso tradotta semplicemente come “Lode a DIO” (ALLAH in lingua Araba), si intende “La grazia sia resa a DIO” (“La Lode appartiene solo a DIO). È paragonabile al termine ebraico Alleluia [in ebraico הַלְּלוּיָהּ], ovvero “DIO sia lodato”.

Molto utilizzata nella lingua parlata Araba di qualsiasi religione (compresi cristiani o ebrei), sebbene la locuzione è usata dai musulmani per via della centralità che questa riveste nei testi del Corano e nelle parole del profeta Maometto (Mohammed).

Significato

L’espressione è composta da tre parti fondamentali:

  • al-, l’articolo determinativo ‘il’;
  • ḥamdu, letteralmente ‘sentimento di gratitudine’;
  • li-llāh(i), preposizione + sostantivo ALLAH; li- è una preposizione che vale ‘per’.

Letteralmente “la lode [appartiene] ad ALLAH” , la frase compare nella prima sura (capitolo) del Corano, al versetto n. 2.

Uso in altre fonti storiche

Jabir ibn Abd-Allah riportò in un ḥadīth le seguenti parole di Maometto: «Il miglior ricordo di DIO è ripetere lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, e la miglior preghiera [du’a] è al-ḥamdu li-llāh».

Per il sahaba Abu Huraira, Maometto affermò pure: «Qualsiasi questione importante che non inizi con al-ḥamdu li-llāh è trascurabile».

The word ALLAH (Arabic: ٱلله‎) means “The GOD”, and it is a contraction of the definite article al- and the word ʾilāh (Arabic: إِلَـٰه‎, “god, deity”). Like in English, the article is used here to single out the noun as being the only one of its kind, “the GOD” (the one and only) or “GOD”. Therefore, Allāh is the Arabic word for “GOD”. ʾilāh is the Arabic cognate of the ancient Semitic name for GOD, El (ELOHIM).

The phrase is first found in the first verse of the first sura (chapter) of the Qur’an (the sura numer 1 named Al-Fatiha). So frequently do Muslims and Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians invoke this phrase that the quadriliteral verb hamdala (Arabic: حَـمْـدَلَ‎), “to say al-ḥamdu li-llāh” was coined, and the derived noun ḥamdalah (Arabic: حَـمْـدَلَـة‎) is used as a name for this phrase. The triconsonantal root Ḥ-M-D (Arabic: ح م د‎), meaning “praise”, can also be found in the names Muhammad, Mahmud, Hamid and Ahmad.

For most Christians, “Hallelujah” is considered a joyful word of praise to GOD, rather than an injunction to praise him. “The Alleluia” refers to a traditional chant, combining the word with verses from the Psalms or other scripture. In the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, and in many older Protestant denominations, the Alleluia, along with the Gloria in excelsis Deo, is not spoken or sung in liturgy during the season of Lent, instead being replaced by a Lenten acclamation, while in Eastern Churches, Alleluia is chanted throughout Lent at the beginning of the Matins service, replacing the Theos Kyrios, which is considered more joyful. At the Easter service and throughout the Pentecostarion, Christos anesti is used in the place where Hallelujah is chanted in the western rite expressing happiness.
Today’s worship among many Protestants, expressions of “Hallelujah” and “Praise the LORD” are acceptable spontaneous expressions of joy, thanksgiving and praise towards GOD, requiring no specific prompting or call or direction from those leading times of praise and singing.

 

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