Le 613 Mitzvot: La lista di tutti i comandamenti contenuti nelle Sacre Scritture

Quali sono i 613 comandamenti (mitzvot) elencati nelle Sacre Scritture?

Secondo la tradizione Ebraica, le Sacre Scritture elencano in totale 613 comandamenti (in lingua Ebraica  מצוות translitterato: mitzvot)

Il Talmud afferma (nel Trattato Makkot 23b) che ci sono 613 comandamenti nella Torah (il Pentateuco per i Cristiani): 248 comandamenti positivi e 365 comandamenti negativi, tuttavia, non ci fornisce una lista.
Il numero di questi precetti è ricco di significati simbolici, infatti secondo l’insegnamento della Tradizione Rabbinica 248 era considerato infatti il numero delle ossa del corpo umano e 365 sono notoriamente i giorni dell’anno (inoltre i legamenti che collegano tra loro le ossa); attraverso questi numeri la Torah sembra suggerirci che tutte le nostre 248 ossa devono compiere le 248 azioni prescritte, e che in ogniuno dei 365 giorni dell’anno dobbiamo impegnarci a non violare i 365 precetti negativi.

Nella pratica però non tutti questi precetti sono attuabili e non tutti da tutti: alcuni necessitano dell’esistenza del Tempio di Gerusalemme, che secondo la Tradizione Rabbinica potrà essere ricostruito solo quando giungerà il Messia e radunerà tutte le 10 tribù disperse del popolo d’Israele.

Diversi grandi studiosi Ebrei hanno redatto un elenco completo di queste mitzvah, e mentre il numero delle mitzvot è certo poiché è esplicitamente detto nella Torah, la loro identificazione è sempre stata oggetto di discussione tra i maggiori “commentatori halakhici“. L’elenco halakchico più accreditato è quello del Rambam (Mosè Maimonide) nel “Sèfer ha-Mitzvòt” ma ve ne sono altri che in alcuni punti essi sono divergenti.
(HE)”השלמות הרוחנית של האדם היא להיות יצור אינטליגנטי, שיודע בעיקר ביכולתו ללמוד” (IT)”La perfezione spirituale dell’uomo consiste nel diventare un essere intelligente, che conosca soprattutto la sua capacità di imparare”
(Maimonide, Lettera a Joseph)

L’ordine dei 613 Comandamenti

Il seguente elenco segue l’opinione di Maimonide, come li elenca nella sua opus magnum, la Mishnah Torah, ma anche se la lista di Rambam è probabilmente la lista più accettata, anche questa opinione non è inappuntabile.

1. Sapere che esiste un DIO Exodus 20, 2 ; Deut 5, 6

2. Non pensare nemmeno che ci siano altri dei al di fuori di DIO Exodus 20, 3

3. Sapere che DIO è Uno Deuteronomy 6, 4

4. Amare DIO Deuteronomy 6, 5

5. Temere DIO (riverenziale/come un Padre) Deuteronomy 10, 20

6. Santificare il Suo Nome Leviticus 22, 32

7. Non profanare il Nome di DIO Leviticus 22, 32

8. Non distruggere oggetti e luoghi associati al nome di DIO Deuteronomy 12, 4

9. Ascoltare i Profeti che parlano in Nome di DIO Deuteronomy 18, 15

10. Non mettere eccessivamente il Profeta alla prova Deuteronomy 6, 16

11. Camminare nelle Vie di DIO Deuteronomy 28, 9

12. Aderire [associarsi con] a coloro che conoscono DIO Deuteronomy 10, 20

13. Amare il tuo prossimo come te stesso Leviticus 19, 18

14. Amare gli stranieri, poiché anche gli antenati dei credenti furono stranieri (e schiavi) nella terra d’Egitto Deuteronomy 10, 19

15. Non odiare tuo fratello nel tuo cuore Leviticus 19, 17

16. Rimproverare il tuo prossimo che trasgredisce Leviticus 19, 17

17. Non addossarti di un peccato a causa del tuo prossimo Leviticus 19, 17

18. Non opprimere il debole Exodus 22, 21

19. Non parlare male del tuo prossimo Leviticus 19, 16

20. Non vendicarti del tuo prossimo Leviticus 19, 18

21. Non provare rancore nei confronti del tuo prossimo Leviticus 19, 18

22. Imparare la Torah (la Legge di DIO) ed insegnarla Deuteronomy 6, 7

23. Onorare coloro che conoscono e insegnano la Legge (Torah) Leviticus 19, 32

24. Non volgetevi verso gli idoli, e non fatevi degli dèi di metallo fuso [non confidate sul denaro e le cose vane] Leviticus 19, 4

25. Non seguire, contro le Vie del SIGNORE, i desideri del tuo cuore o ciò che vedono i tuoi occhi perchè ti condurranno fuori Strada Numbers 15, 39

26. Non maledire un giudice, né un principe [capo] tra la tua gente. Exodus 22, 27

27. Non adorare gli idoli perchè il SIGNORE tuo DIO è un Dio geloso Exodus 20, 5

28. Non ti prostrare davanti agli idoli [non farti sottomettere dalle cose terrene] Exodus 20, 5

29. Non farti idolo alcuno [il 2° Comandamento] Exodus 20, 4

30. Non farti idoli di metallo fuso Leviticus 19, 4

31. Non attribuire forme umane a DIO, anche solo per scopi decorativi. Exodus 20, 20

32. Non volgere le città verso l’idolatria [ma verso DIO] Exodus 23, 13

33. Bruciare una città che si è rivolta verso l’idolatria Deuteronomy 13, 17

34. Non ricostruire una città che si è rivolta all’idolatria Deuteronomy 13, 17

35. Non trarre benefici dalla ricostruzione di quella città [distrutta a causa del suo peccato] Deuteronomy 13, 18

36.  Non seguire un individuo che vuole condurre il tuo popolo ad adorare dei stranieri [“non acconsentirai, non gli darai retta; l’occhio tuo non abbia pietà per lui; non risparmiarlo, non giustificarlo] Deuteronomy 13, 8-12

37. Non amare l’idolatra (coloro che venerano altri dèi, quelli che “né tu né i tuoi padri avete mai conosciuto”) Deuteronomy 13, 9

38. Non avere pietà contro chi adora altri dèi (“tu non acconsentirai, non gli darai retta; l’occhio tuo non abbia pietà per lui; non risparmiarlo, non giustificarlo“) Deuteronomy 13, 9

39. Non risparmiare chi adora altri dèi Deuteronomy 13, 9

40. Non dire niente in sua difesa e per sua salvezza Deuteronomy 13, 9

41. Non nascondere prove che possano incriminarlo Deuteronomy 13, 9

42. Non profetizzare in nome di altri dèi Deuteronomy 18, 20

43. Non ascoltare un falso profeta Deuteronomy 13, 4

44. Non profetizzare falsamente nel Nome di DIO Deuteronomy 18, 20

45. Non avere pietà o paura di uccidere i falsi profeti Deuteronomy 18, 22

46. Non giurare nel nome di un idolo Exodus 23, 13

47. Non consultare gli Ov (negromanti) Leviticus 19, 31

48. Non consultare gli Yidoni (indovini/medium) Leviticus 19, 31

49. Non offrire i tuoi figli (“far passare i tuoi figli attraverso il”) al fuoco di Moloch Leviticus 18, 21

50. Non erigere alcuna stele (monumento) in pubblico per adorare idoli Deuteronomy 16, 22

51. Non prostrarti davanti una pietra levigata (statua) Leviticus 26, 1

52. Non piantare albero nel cortile del Tempio Deuteronomy 16, 21

53. Distruggi gli idoli e gli accessori per il loro culto Deuteronomy 12, 2

54. Non avere benefici derivati dagli idoli e dai loro accessori Deuteronomy 7, 26

55. Non trarre benefici dagli ornamenti degli idoli Deuteronomy 7, 25

56. Non stringere patti/alleanze con gli idolatri (nazioni straniere che non credono in DIO) Deuteronomy 7, 2

57. Non mostrare loro il tuo favore Deuteronomy 7, 2

58. Non permettere loro di risiedere nella tua terra Exodus 23, 33

59. Non imitare gli idolatri in costumi e tradizioni Leviticus 20, 23

60. Non essere superstizioso Leviticus 19, 26

61. Non entrare in trance per prevedere il futuro e altre cose Deuteronomy 18, 10

62. Non devi agire sulla base di presagi o di ore fortunate [come seguire l’astrologia] Leviticus 19, 26

63. Non pronunciare incantesimi Deuteronomy 18, 11

64. Non tentare di metterti in contatto con i morti (negromanzia) Deuteronomy 18, 11

65. Non consulterete gli Ov (medium / maghi) Deuteronomy 18, 11

66. Non consulterete gli Yidoni (indovini / oracoli) Deuteronomy 18, 11

67. Non compiere atti di magia Deuteronomy 18, 10

68. Gli uomini non si taglieranno i capelli intorno ai lati della propria testa Leviticus 19, 27

69. Gli uomini non si raderanno i lati della barba con il rasoio Leviticus 19, 27

70. Gli uomini non si vestiranno con abiti da donna Deuteronomy 22, 5

71. Le donne non si vestiranno con abiti da uomo Deuteronomy 22, 5

72. Non ti tatuerai in onore di una persona [che è morta] Leviticus 19, 28

73. Non ti farai incisioni sulla pelle in onore di una persona [che è morta] Deuteronomy 14, 1

74. Non strapparti parti dei tuoi capelli in segno di lutto Deuteronomy 14, 1

75. Pentiti e ammetti (confessa) i peccati compiuti Numbers 5, 7

76. Dire la Shemà due volte al giorno (alla sera e alla mattina) Deuteronomy 6, 7

77. Servire l’Onnipotente DIO con la preghiera quotidiana Exodus 23, 25

78. Il Kohanim (Sommo Sacerdote) deve benedire la nazione dei credenti ogni giorno Numbers 6, 23

79. Tenere i comandamenti “tra i tuoi occhi” (“sempre fissi in mente”) [alcuni ebrei ortodossi interpretano indossando i tefillin] Deuteronomy 6, 8

80. Tenere i comandamenti “nella tua mano” (“sempre a portata di mano”) [alcuni ebrei ortodossi interpretano indossando i tefillin] Deuteronomy 6, 8

81. Mettere i comandamenti [alcuni ebrei ortodossi interpretano ponendo agli stipiti delle porte delle loro abitazioni le Mezuzah] su ogni stipite (“e li scriverai sugli stipiti della tua casa e sulle porte [della tua città].“) Deuteronomy 6, 9

82. Ogni credente scriva un rotolo (Sefer) della Torah (Legge). Deuteronomy 31, 19

83. Il re scriva un ulteriore rotolo (sefer) della Torah per se stesso. (“quando si insedierà sul suo trono reale, scriverà per suo uso, in un rotolo una copia di questa Legge [Torah]”) Deuteronomy 17, 18

84. Applica gli tzitzit (frange) ai quattro angoli dei vestiti (Gli Ortodossi li hanno agli angoli del talled). Numbers 15, 38

85. Benedire il SIGNORE DIO ai pasti (“Mangerai dunque e ti sazierai e benedirai il SIGNORE, tuo DIO”) Deuteronomy 8, 10

86. Circoncidere tutti i maschi otto giorni dopo la loro nascita. Leviticus 12, 3 Genesi 17, 10

87. Riposare il settimo giorno della settimana (Shabbat) Exodus 23, 12

88. Non fare nessun lavoro (ordinario, che affatica) il settimo giorno Exodus 20, 10

89. La Corte non infligga punizioni nel giorno di Shabbat. Exodus 35, 3

90. Non camminare per più di 2000 cubiti (al di fuori della città) nel giorno di riposo (Shabbat) Exodus 16, 29

91. Santifica il giorno dello Shabbat [Gli Ebrei Ortodossi santificano lo Shabbat con le preghiere di Kiddush e Havdalah] Exodus 20, 8

92. Riposare durante il giorno dell’espiazione (Yom Kippur) Leviticus 23, 32

93. Non fareai nessun lavoro nel giorno di pentimento di Yom Kippur Leviticus 23, 31

94. Nel giorno di Yom Kippur fare pentimento e affliggerti per i peccati commessi Leviticus 16, 29

95. Non mangiare e bere [fare completo digiuno] nel giorno di Yom Kippur Leviticus 23, 29

96. Riposa il primo giorno (della settimana) di Pasqua (Pesach) Leviticus 23, 7

97. Non fare nessun lavoro il primo giorno (della settimana) di Pasqua Leviticus 23, 8

98. Riposare il settimo giorno (della settimana) di Pasqua Leviticus 23, 8

99. Non fare nessun lavoro il settimo giorno (della settimana) di Pasqua Leviticus 23, 8

100. Riposare il giorno di Pentecoste (Shavuot) Leviticus 23, 21

101. Non fare nessun lavoro il giorno di Pentecoste (Shavuot) Leviticus 23, 21

102. Riposare il giorno di Rosh Hashanah Leviticus 23, 24

103. Non fare nessun lavoro il giorno di Rosh Hashanah Leviticus 23, 25

104. Riposare il giorno delle Capanne/festa di pellegrinaggio (Sukkot) Leviticus 23, 35

105. Non fare nessun lavoro il giorno di Sukkot Leviticus 23, 35

106. Riposare il giorno di Shemini Atzeret Leviticus 23, 36

107. Non fare nessun lavoro il giorno di Shemini Atzeret Leviticus 23, 36

108. Non mangiare lievito (Chametz) dalla sera del 14° giorno di Nisan Deuteronomy 16, 3

109. Distruggi ogni traccia di lievitati il giorno 14 di Nisan. Exodus 12, 15

110. Non mangiare Chametz per tutti i sette giorni di Pasqua Exodus 13, 3

111. Non mangiare miscele contenenti Chametz tutti i sette giorni di Pasqua Exodus 12, 20

112. Non si vedranno presso le tue abitazioni cose lievitate (Chametz) in quei sette giorni (di Pesach) Exodus 13, 7

113. Non si dovranno trovare tracce di cose lievitate (Chametz) presso le tue abitazioni in quei sette giorni (di Pesach) Exodus 12, 19

114. Mangiare Matzah (pane non lievitato / azzimo) la prima notte di Pesach (Pasqua) Exodus 12, 18

115. Narra la storia dell’Esodo del popolo di DIO, ricorda il racconto dell’uscita dall’Egitto la sera della vigilia di Pesach. Exodus 13, 8

116. Ascolta (in ricordo dell’uscita dalla condizione di schiavitù) il suono dello Shofar nel primo giorno di Tishri (Rosh haShana) Numbers 29, 1

117. Abitare nelle capanne (Sukkah) durante i sette giorni di Sukkot (Festa dei tabernacoli) Leviticus 23, 42

118. Prendi durante quei sette giorni un ramo o un frutto delle quattro specie: palma (Lulav), cedro (Etrog), mirto (Hadas) e salice (Aravot) Leviticus 23, 40

119. Ognuni uomo credente dia in offerta ogni anno mezzo siclo (d’argento) Exodus 30, 13

120. La Corte ogni anno effettui i calcoli utili a capire quando inizia un nuovo mese Exodus 12, 2

121. In tempi di guerra (catastrofi), affliggersi per essere ricordati da DIO e ricevere soccorso Numbers 10, 9

122. Sposare una donna seguendo le Leggi della Torah (nashim) Deuteronomy 24, 1-5

123. Non avere donne o uomini credenti che diventino prostituti Deuteronomy 23, 18

124. Non negare a tua moglie alcun bisogno di prima necessità (“non diminuirà il suo sostentamento, i suoi vestiti o le sue relazioni coniugali”) Exodus 21, 10

125. Provare ad avere figli con la propria moglie [“Siate fecondi e moltiplicatevi e riempite la terra e soggiogatela”] Genesis 1, 28

126. Sciogliere un matrimonio per mezzo di un documento di divorzio (Get) [“se poi avviene che essa non trovi favore davanti ai suoi occhi, perché egli ha trovato in lei qualche cosa di immorale, scriva per lei un certificato di divorzio e glielo consegni in mano“] Deuteronomy 24, 1

127. Un uomo non risposerà sua moglie dopo che lei si è risposata con un altro uomo [“il primo marito, che l’aveva cacciata, non potrà riprenderla per moglie, dopo che essa è stata contaminata, perché sarebbe abominio davanti al SIGNORE“] Deuteronomy 24, 4

128. Obbligo di sposare la vedova senza figli (senza discendenza) del proprio fratello credente (Yibum / Legge del Levirato) [“la moglie del defunto non si mariterà con un’estraneo (non credente)“] Deuteronomy 25, 5

129. Assolvere la donna dal Yibum se il fratello del marito non vuole prenderla per moglie (Halitzah) Deuteronomy 25, 9

130. La vedova senza figli non si risposi fino a quando non saranno risolti i legami (Yibum) con i fratelli del marito Deuteronomy 25, 5

131. La Corte punisca chi seduce e si corica con una vergine credente ma non la vuole prendere per sposa Exodus 22, 15-16

132. Il seduttore (violentatore) avrà l’obbligo di sposare (se lei è d’accordo) la donna con il quale si è coricato (“essa sarà sua moglie, per il fatto che egli l’ha disonorata”) Deuteronomy 22, 28-29

133. Il seduttore non potrà mai divorziare con lei (“non potrà ripudiarla per tutto il tempo della sua vita.”) Deuteronomy 22, 29

134. Il marito calunniatore (che sospetta ingiustamente la moglie di infedeltà) dovrà rimanerle sposato Deuteronomy 22, 19

135. Il marito calunniatore non potrà divorziare con la moglie accusata ingiustamente Deuteronomy 22, 19

136. Adempi alle leggi della Sotah (il marito che sospetta adulterio torni contrito alla moglie quando lei ha provato fedeltà) Numbers 5, 30

137. Non mettere olio nelle offerte della Sotah Numbers 5, 15

138. Non mettere incenso nelle offerte della Sotah Numbers 5, 15

139. Non avere relazioni sessuali con tua madre Leviticus 18, 7

140. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la moglie di tuo padre Leviticus 18, 8

141. Non avere relazioni sessuali con tua sorella Leviticus 18, 9

142. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la figlia della moglie di tuo padre (la tua sorellastra) Leviticus 18, 11

143. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la figlia di tuo figlio (nipote) Leviticus 18, 10

144. Non avere relazioni sessuali con tua figlia Leviticus 18, 10

145. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la figlia di tua figlia Leviticus 18, 10

146. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la figlia della donna che hai sposato Leviticus 18, 17

147. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la figlia del figlio della donna che hai sposato (sua nipote) Leviticus 18, 17

148. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la figlia della figlia della donna che hai sposato (sua nipote) Leviticus 18, 17

149. on avere relazioni sessuali con la sorella di tuo padre (zia) Leviticus 18, 12

150. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la sorella di tua madre (zia) Leviticus 18, 13

151. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la moglie del fratello di tuo padre (zia) Leviticus 18, 14

152. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la moglie di tuo figlio (nuora) Leviticus 18, 15

153. Non avere relazioni sessuali con la moglie di tuo fratello (se entrambi i fratelli sono in vita) Leviticus 18, 16

154. Non avere rapporti sessuali con la sorella di tua moglie Leviticus 18, 18

155. L’uomo non abbia rapporti sessuali con un animale Leviticus 18, 23

156. La donna non abbia rapporti sessuali con un animale Leviticus 18, 23

157. Non ti coricherai [avere rapporti sessuali] con un’uomo, così come fai con una donna Leviticus 18, 22

158. Non scoprire la nudità di tuo padre o la nudità di tua madre [vedi l’episodio di Noè e suo figlio Cam] Leviticus 18, 7

159. Non scoprire la nudità del fratello di tuo padre e non avvicinarti a sua moglie; lei è tua zia Leviticus 18, 14

160. Non avere rapporti sessuali con la moglie del tuo prossimo Leviticus 18, 20

161. Non avere rapporti sessuali con una donna in periodo mestruale [“Non ti accosterai a donna per scoprire la sua nudità durante l’impurità mestruale.“] Leviticus 18, 19

162. Non sposarti con una donna non credente (“gli Hittiti, i Gergesei, gli Amorrei, i Perizziti, gli Evei, i Cananei e i Gebusei) Deuteronomy 7, 3

163. Non permettere che i maschi Moabiti e Ammoniti entrino nell’assemblea del SIGNORE Deuteronomy 23, 4

164. Non astenersi dal lasciare che un convertito Egiziano di terza generazione entri nell’Assemblea del SIGNORE Deuteronomy 23, 8-9

165. Non astenersi dal lasciare che un convertito Edomita (Idumeo) di terza generazione entri nell’Assemblea del SIGNORE Deuteronomy 23, 8-9

166. Non permettere mai ad un Mamzer (“bastardo”) di far parte dell’Assemblea del SIGNORE Deuteronomy 23, 3

167. Non permettere mai ad un eunuco di far parte dell’Assemblea del SIGNORE Deuteronomy 23, 2

168. Non offrire [“in sacrificio”] al SIGNORE alcun animale i cui testicoli siano stati ammaccati, schiacciati, strappati o recisi Leviticus 22, 24

169. Il sacerdote (Kohen) non sposi una vedova Leviticus 21, 14

170. Il sacerdote non abbia rapporti sessuali con una vedova nemmeno al di fuori del matrimonio Leviticus 21, 14

171. Il sacerdote (Kohen) deve sposare una vergine Leviticus 21, 13

172. Il sacerdote (Kohen) non deve sposare una divorziata Leviticus 21, 7

173. Il sacerdote (Kohen) non deve sposare una prostituta (zonah) Leviticus 21, 7

174. Il sacerdote (Kohen) non deve sposare una disonorata (chalalah) Leviticus 21, 7

175. Non avvicinarsi a nessuno dei suoi parenti (consanguigni), per scoprire la [loro] nudità Leviticus 18, 6

176. Esaminare i segni degli animali per distinguere se sono Kosher (“permessi” o “adatti” [seguono i precetti]) Leviticus 11, 2

177. Esamina i segni dei volatili per valutare se è kosher o non kosher Deuteronomy 14, 11

178. Esamina i segni dei pesci per valutare se sono kosher o non kosher Leviticus 11, 9

179. Esamina i segni degli insetti per valutare se sono kosher o non kosher Leviticus 11, 21

180. Non mangiare animali impuri Leviticus 11, 4

181. Non mangiare volatili impuri Leviticus 11, 13

182. Non mangiare pesci impuri Leviticus 11, 11

183. Non mangiare insetti impuri Deuteronomy 14, 19

184. Non mangiare creature impure che si insinuano nella terra Leviticus 11, 41

185. Non mangiare nessuna creatura che striscia sulla terra Leviticus 11, 44

186. Non mangiare vermi trovati nei frutti della terra Leviticus 11, 42

187. Non mangiare creature che vivono nell’acqua che non sono pesci Leviticus 11, 43

188. Non mangiare la carne di animali che sono morti in maniera diversa dalla macellazione rituale Deuteronomy 14, 21

189. Non mangiare carne di un animale che sia stato condannato o lapidato (a causa dell’uccisione di una persona) Exodus 21, 28

190. Non mangiare la carne di animali feriti a morte Exodus 22, 30

191. Non mangiare parti di animali strappate ad animali ancora in vita Deuteronomy 12, 23

192. Not to eat blood of a sacrificial animal Leviticus 3, 17

193. Not to eat fats of a sacrificial animals Leviticus 3, 17

194. Not to eat the sinew of the thigh (sciatic nerve in honour of patriarch Jacob) Genesis 32, 33

195. Not to cook a young goat (kid) in its mother’s milk Exodus 23, 19

196. Not to eat a young goat (kid) in its mother’s milk Exodus 34, 26

197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the offer was made (Omer) Leviticus 23, 14

198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the Omer Leviticus 23:14

199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer—Leviticus 23:14

200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three years Leviticus 19, 23

201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyard Deuteronomy 22, 9

202. Not to desecrate the holy things of the children of Israel, those that they have set aside for the LORD Leviticus 22, 15

203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idols Deuteronomy 32, 38

204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating it Deuteronomy 12, 21

205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day Leviticus 22, 28

206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth Leviticus 17, 13

207. Not to take the mother bird from her children Deuteronomy 22, 6

208. To release the mother bird before taking the children Deuteronomy 22, 7

209. Not to swear falsely in GOD’s Name Leviticus 19, 12

210. Not to take GOD’s Name in vain Exodus 20, 7

211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you Leviticus 19, 11

212. Not to swear falsely in denial of a monetary claim Leviticus 19, 11

213. To swear in GOD’s Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court Deuteronomy 10, 20

214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed Deuteronomy 23, 24

215. Not to break oaths or vows Numbers 30, 3

216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah Numbers 30, 3

217. The Nazir must let his hair grow Numbers 6, 5

218. The Nazir must not cut his hair Numbers 6, 5

219. The Nazir must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegar Numbers 6, 3

220. The Nazir must not eat fresh grapes Numbers 6, 3

221. The Nazir not eat raisins Numbers 6, 3

222. The Nazir must not eat grape seeds Numbers 6, 4

223. The Nazir must not eat grape skins Numbers 6, 4

224. The Nazir must not be under the same roof as a corpse [a dead person] Numbers 6, 6

225. The Nazir must not come into contact with the dead Numbers 6, 7

226. The Nazir must shave after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazirite period Numbers 6, 18

227. To estimate the value of the Nazir (when someone pledges a person’s worth) as determined by the Torah Leviticus 27, 2-8

228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals Leviticus 27, 12-13

229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses Leviticus 27, 14

230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields Leviticus 27, 16

231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) Leviticus 27, 28

232. Not to sell the cherem Leviticus 27, 28

233. Not to redeem the cherem Leviticus 27, 28

234. Not to plant diverse seeds together Leviticus 19, 19

235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard Deuteronomy 22, 9

236. Not to crossbreed animals Leviticus 19, 19

237. Not to plow with an ox and a donkey together Deuteronomy 22, 10

238. Not to wear Shatnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen Deuteronomy 22, 11

239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poor Leviticus 19, 10

240. Not to reap that corner Leviticus 19, 9

241. To leave gleanings for the poor and the foregin Leviticus 19, 9

242. Not to gather the gleanings Leviticus 19, 9

243. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard Leviticus 19, 10

244. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard Leviticus 19, 10

245. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes for the poor Leviticus 19, 10

246. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes—Leviticus 19, 10

247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow Deuteronomy 24, 19

248. Not to retrieve them Deuteronomy 24, 19

249. To separate the tithe for the poor Deuteronomy 14, 28

250. To give charity (“you shall surely open your hand to your brother, to your poor one, and to your needy one in your land.“) Deuteronomy 15, 11

251. Not to withhold charity from the poor and needy Deuteronomy 15, 7

252. To set aside tithe for the Kohen (Terumah Gedolah) Deuteronomy 18, 4

253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe for the Kohen Numbers 18, 26

254. Not to improperly preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order Exodus 22, 28

255. A non-Kohen must not eat holy things (Terumah) Leviticus 22, 10

256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat Terumah Leviticus 22, 10

257. An uncircumcised males must not eat Terumah Exodus 12, 48

258. An impure Kohen must not eat Terumah Leviticus 22, 4

259. A chalalah [a kohen’s daughter that is married to a non kohen; see Mitzvah 174] must not eat Terumah Leviticus 22, 12

260. To set aside Ma’aser (tithe) each planting year and give it to a Levite Numbers 18, 24

261. To set aside the Second Tithe (which is to be eaten in Jerusalem) Deuteronomy 14, 22

262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment—Deuteronomy 26, 14

263. Not to eat the Second Tithe while impure Deuteronomy 26, 14

264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat the Second Tithe  Deuteronomy 26, 14

265. Not to eat Second Tithe grains outside Jerusalem Deuteronomy 12, 17

266. Not to eat Second Tithe wine products outside Jerusalem Deuteronomy 12, 17

267. Not to eat Second Tithe oil outside Jerusalem Deuteronomy 12, 17

268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like the Second Tithe Leviticus 19, 24

269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year Deuteronomy 26, 13

270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple Exodus 23, 19

271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside Jerusalem Deuteronomy 12, 17

272. To remember the Torah portion about who believers were (“An Aramean [sought to] destroy my forefather, and he went down to Egypt and sojourned there with a small number of people”), and who they become (“a great, mighty, and numerous nation“) Deuteronomy 26, 5

273. To set aside a portion of dough for a Kohen Numbers 15, 20

274. To give the shoulder, two cheeks, and stomach of slaughtered animals to a Kohen Deuteronomy 18, 3

275. To give the first sheering of sheep to a Kohen Deuteronomy 18, 4

276. To redeem the firstborn sons and give the money to a Kohen Numbers 18, 15

277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a Kohen Exodus 13, 13

278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it Exodus 13, 13

279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth Exodus 34, 21

280. Not to work the land during the seventh year Leviticus 25, 4

281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year Leviticus 25, 4

282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner Leviticus 25, 5

283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way Leviticus 25, 5

284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year Exodus 23, 11

285. To release all loans during the seventh year Deuteronomy 15, 3

286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower Deuteronomy 15, 2

287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss Deuteronomy 15, 9

288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years Leviticus 25, 8

289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth (Jubilee) year Leviticus 25, 10

290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei (Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year) to free the slaves Leviticus 25, 9-10

291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year Leviticus 25, 11

292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year Leviticus 25, 11

293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year Leviticus 25, 11

294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties Leviticus 25, 24

295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely (“The land shall not be sold permanently, for the land belongs to Me, for you are strangers and [temporary] residents with Me.”) Leviticus 25, 23

296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities Leviticus 25, 29

297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in Deuteronomy 18, 2

298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war Deuteronomy 18, 1

299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields Numbers 35, 2

300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites’ before and after the Jubilee year Leviticus 25, 34

301. To build a Sanctuary (Holy Temple) Exodus 25, 8

302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal Exodus 20, 22

303. Not to climb steps to the altar Exodus 20, 23

304. To show reverence for the Temple Leviticus 19, 30

305. To guard the Temple area Numbers 18, 3

306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded Numbers 18, 5

307. To prepare the anointing oil Exodus 30, 31

308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil (for personal use) Exodus 30, 32

309. Not to anoint with anointing oil (a non-Kohen “son of Aaron”)) Exodus 30, 32

310. Not to reproduce the incense formula (for personal use) Exodus 30, 37

311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incense Exodus 30, 9

312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders Numbers 7, 9

313. Not to remove the staves from the ark Exodus 25, 15

314. The Levites must work in the Temple Numbers 18, 23

315. No Levite must do another’s work of either a Kohen or a Levite Numbers 18, 3

316. To dedicate the Kohen for service Leviticus 21, 8

317. The Kohen work shifts must be equal during holidays Deuteronomy 18, 6-8

318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service Exodus 28, 2

319. Not to tear the priestly garments Exodus 28, 32

320. The High Priest’s breastplate must not be loosened from the Efod (priestly apron) Exodus 28, 28

321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated Leviticus 10, 9

322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with unshorn (uneven) hair Leviticus 10, 6

323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes Leviticus 10, 6

324. A Kohen must not enter the Sanctuary of the Temple indiscriminately Leviticus 16, 2

325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service Leviticus 10, 7

326. To send the impure from the Temple Numbers 5, 2

327. Impure people must not enter the Temple Numbers 5, 3

328. A man who is unclean because of a nocturnal emission must not enter the Temple Mount area Deuteronomy 23, 11

329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the Temple Leviticus 22, 2

330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service Leviticus 21, 6

331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service Exodus 30, 19

332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the Sanctuary or approach the altar Leviticus 21, 23

333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve Leviticus 21, 17

334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve Leviticus 21, 18

335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve Numbers 18, 4

336. To offer only unblemished animals Leviticus 22, 21

337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar Leviticus 22, 20

338. Not to slaughter it Leviticus 22, 22

339. Not to sprinkle its blood Leviticus 22, 24

340. Not to burn its fat Leviticus 22, 22

341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal Deuteronomy 17, 1

342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by gentiles Leviticus 22, 25

343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals Leviticus 22, 21

344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified Deuteronomy 12, 15

345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old Leviticus 22, 27

346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or an offer made by exchanged a dog Deuteronomy 23, 19

347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar Leviticus 2, 11

348. To salt every one of your meal offering sacrifices Leviticus 2, 13

349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices Leviticus 2, 13

350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah Leviticus 1, 3

351. Not to eat its meat Deuteronomy 12, 17

352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering Leviticus 6, 18

353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering Leviticus 6, 23

354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering Leviticus 5, 8

355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering Leviticus 7, 1

356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple Exodus 29, 33

357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard Deuteronomy 12, 17

358. A non-Kohen must not eat [certain] sacrificial meats Exodus 29, 33

359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering Leviticus 7, 11

360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood Deuteronomy 12, 17

361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah Leviticus 2, 1

362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers Leviticus 5, 11

363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers Leviticus 5, 11

364. The meal offering of a Priest should not be eaten Leviticus 6, 16

365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread Leviticus 6, 10

366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings Leviticus 6, 9

367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival Deuteronomy 12, 5-6

368. Not delay in paying any vow you make to the LORD Deuteronomy 23, 22

369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple Deuteronomy 12, 11

370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple Deuteronomy 12, 26

371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard Leviticus 17, 4

372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard Deuteronomy 12, 13

373. To offer (the comunity) two lambs in the fire offering every day Numbers 28, 3

374. To have always a fire on the altar Leviticus 6, 5

375. Not to extinguish the fire on the altar Leviticus 6, 5

376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day Leviticus 6, 3

377. To burn incense every day Exodus 30, 7

378. To light the Menorah every day Exodus 27, 21

379. The High Priest must bring a meal offering every day Leviticus 6, 13

380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on Shabbat Numbers 28, 9

381. To make the show bread Exodus 25, 30

382. To bring additional offerings on the New Month (Rosh Chodesh) Numbers 28, 11

383. To bring additional offerings on Passover Numbers 28, 19

384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat (on the 2nd day of Passover) Leviticus 23, 10

385. Each man must count the Omer, seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought Leviticus 23, 15

386. To bring additional offerings on Shavuot Numbers 28, 26

387. To bring two loaves to accompany the above sacrifice Leviticus 23, 18

388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Hashanah Numbers 29, 2

389. To bring additional offerings on Yom Kippur Numbers 29, 8

390. To bring additional offerings on Sukkot Numbers 29, 13

391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini Atzeret Numbers 29, 35

392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished Deuteronomy 14, 3

393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions Leviticus 7, 18

394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them Leviticus 22, 30

395. Not to eat from that which was left over Leviticus 19, 8

396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure Leviticus 7, 19

397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices Leviticus 7, 20

398. To burn the leftover sacrifices Leviticus 7, 17

399. To burn all impure sacrifices Leviticus 7, 19

400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in the Torah Leviticus 16, 3

401. One who profaned holy property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice Leviticus 5, 16

402. Not to work consecrated animals (“Every firstborn male that is born of your cattle or of your flock you shall sanctify to the LORD, your GOD.”) Deuteronomy 15, 19

403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals (firstborn male) Deuteronomy 15, 19

404. To slaughter the Paschal sacrifice at the specified time Exodus 12, 6

405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven Exodus 23, 18

406. Not to leave the fat overnight Exodus 23, 18

407. To slaughter the second Paschal Lamb Numbers 9, 11

408. To eat the Paschal Lamb with Matzah and Maror on the night of the 15th of Nissan Exodus 12, 8

409. To eat the second Paschal Lamb on the night of the 15th of Iyar Numbers 9, 11

410. Not to eat the Paschal meat raw or boiled Exodus 12, 9

411. Not to take the Paschal meat from the confines of its group Exodus 12, 46

412. An estranged must not eat from the Passover sacrifice Exodus 12, 43

413. A sojourner or a hired hand must not eat from the Passover sacrifice Exodus 12, 45

414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from the Passover sacrifice Exodus 12, 48

415. Not to break any bones from the Paschal offering Exodus 12, 46

416. Not to break any bones from the second Paschal offering Numbers 9, 12

417. Not to leave any meat from the Paschal offering over until morning Exodus 12, 10

418. Not to leave the second Paschal meat over until morning Numbers 9, 12

419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th Deuteronomy 16, 4

420. To visit the Temple in Jerusalem three times per year: on Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot Deuteronomy 16, 16

421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (by bringing an offering) Exodus 23, 14

422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (“you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are within your cities.“) Deuteronomy 16, 14

423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings Deuteronomy 16, 16

424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites Deuteronomy 12, 19

425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year [the king publicly reads portions of the Torah] Deuteronomy 31, 12

426. To set aside the firstborn animals [to be eaten by the Kohanim, and sacrificed unless they are blemished] Exodus 13, 12

427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem Deuteronomy 12, 17

428. Not to redeem “a firstborn ox or a firstborn sheep or a firstborn goat shall not be redeemed, for they are holy.” Numbers 18, 17

429. Separate the tithe from animals [to be eaten by the Kohanim, and sacrificed unless they are blemished] Leviticus 27, 32

430. Not to redeem the tithe Leviticus 27, 33

431. Every person must bring a sin offering for his transgression Leviticus 4, 27

432. Bring an asham talui offering (“conditional guilt offering”) when uncertain of guilt (when a person thought he might have committed a sin but isn’t sure) Leviticus 5, 17-18

433. Bring an asham vadai offering [for certain sins] when guilt is verified Leviticus 5, 25

434. Bring an oleh v’yored offering (if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) [for certain sins] Leviticus 5, 7-11

435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering when it rules in error Leviticus 4, 13

436. A woman who had a running (vaginal) issue must bring an offering (in the Temple) after she goes to the Mikvah Leviticus 15, 28-29

437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering after she goes to the Mikvah Leviticus 12, 6

438. A man who had a running issue must bring an offering after he goes to the Mikvah Leviticus 15, 13-14

439. A metzora (“leprous” person, one having a skin disease) must bring an offering (in the Temple) after going to the Mikvah Leviticus 14, 10

440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice Leviticus 27, 10

441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration Leviticus 27, 10

442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another Leviticus 27, 26

443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead Numbers 19, 14

444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer Numbers 19, 9

445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water [of the Red Heifer] Numbers 19, 21

446. Rule the laws of human tzara’at (Leprosy, see Mitzvah 439) as prescribed in the Torah Leviticus 13, 12

447. The metzora (leper) must not remove his signs of impurity Deuteronomy 24, 8

448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair Leviticus 13, 33

449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering down to his mustache Leviticus 13, 45

450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzora Leviticus 14, 2

451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification Leviticus 14, 9

452. Carry out the laws of “leprous” clothing Leviticus 13, 47

453. Carry out the laws of leprous houses Leviticus 14, 35

454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurity Leviticus 15, 19

455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirth Leviticus 12, 2

456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman’s running (vaginal) issue Leviticus 15, 25

457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man’s running issue (irregular ejaculation of infected semen) Leviticus 15, 3

458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead animals Leviticus 11, 39

459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (rodents, amphibious creatures, and lizards) [specified in the Torah] Leviticus 11, 29

460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (regular ejaculation, with normal semen) Leviticus 15, 16

461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods Leviticus 11, 34

462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikvah to become pure Leviticus 15, 16

463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring beast Exodus 21, 28

464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating Exodus 22, 4

465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit Exodus 21, 33

466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire Exodus 22, 5

467. Not to steal Leviticus 19, 11

468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief Exodus 21, 37

469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate Leviticus 19, 36

470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weights Leviticus 19, 35

471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use Deuteronomy 25, 13

472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone’s property Deuteronomy 19, 14

473. Not to kidnap Exodus 20, 13

474. Not to rob Leviticus 19, 13

475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt Leviticus 19, 13

476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire your neighbor’s possession Exodus 20, 14

477. Not to desire your neighbor’s possession Deuteronomy 5, 18

478. Return the robbed object or its value Leviticus 5, 23

479. Not to ignore a lost ox or donkey [objects] Deuteronomy 22, 3

480. Return the lost ox or donkey [objects] Deuteronomy 22, 1

481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another’s property Exodus 21, 18

482. Not to murder Exodus 20, 13

483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer Numbers 35, 31

484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refuge Numbers 35, 25

485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge Numbers 35, 32

486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial Numbers 35, 12

487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer Deuteronomy 25, 12

488. Not to pity the pursuer Numbers 35, 12

489. Not to stand idly by if someone’s life is in danger Leviticus 19, 16

490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access Deuteronomy 19, 3

491. Break the neck of a calf by a stream following an unsolved murder Deuteronomy 21, 4

492. To neither work nor plant that river valley Deuteronomy 21, 4

493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property Deuteronomy 22, 8

494. Make a guard rail on your roof when you build a new house Deuteronomy 22, 8

495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) Leviticus 19, 14

496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it Exodus 23, 5

497. Help others load their beast—Deuteronomy 22, 4

498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) Deuteronomy 22, 4

499. Buy and sell according to Torah law Leviticus 25, 14

500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article (selling or purchasing) Leviticus 25, 14

501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words Leviticus 25, 17

502. Not to cheat a sincere stranger monetarily Exodus 22, 20

503. Not to insult or harm a stranger with words Exodus 22, 20

504. If you purchase a Hebrew slave [servant] he shall work for six years, and in the seventh [year], he shall go out to freedom without charge Exodus 21, 1-6

505. Not to sell a destitute brother (that is sold to you) as a slave is sold Leviticus 25, 39-42

506. Not to work your brother oppressively (severely) Leviticus 25, 43

507. Not to allow a non-believer to work oppressively your brother (a believer), he will be “an employee hired year by year“. Leviticus 25, 53

508. Not to have your brother do menial (ignoble) slave labor Leviticus 25, 39

509. When your brother (a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman) he/she goes free, give him/her a gifts based on how much your GOD has blessed you Deuteronomy 15, 14

510. Not to send your brother away empty-handed Deuteronomy 15, 13

511. Redeem believer maidservants Exodus 21, 8

512. Betroth (enter into a formal agreement to marry) the believer maidservant Exodus 21, 8

513. The master must not sell his believer maidservant Exodus 21, 8

514. Outsiders (non-believers, people “from the nations that are around you”) slaves must work forever (“You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you, as acquired property”) Leviticus 25, 44-46

515. Not to extradite a slave (“not deliver a slave to his master if he seeks refuge with you from his master”) who fled to Israel Deuteronomy 23, 16

516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge (“he shall reside among you, wherever he chooses within any of your cities, where it is good for him. You shall not oppress him.”) Deuteronomy 23, 17

517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guardians (example: guardinan of animals) Exodus 22, 8-10

518. Pay the salaries of poor people or labor workers on the day they were earned (“on his day and not let the sun set over it, for he is poor, and he risks his life for it“) Deuteronomy 24, 15

519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time Leviticus 19, 13

520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works Deuteronomy 23, 25

521. The worker must not eat while on hired time Deuteronomy 23, 26

522. The worker must not take more than he can eat Deuteronomy 23, 25

523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing Deuteronomy 25, 4

524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower Exodus 22, 13

525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard Exodus 22, 6

526. Lend to the poor and destitute (believers), not impose interest upon a believer. Exodus 22, 24

527. Not to press believeres for payment if you know they don’t have it Exodus 22, 24

528. Press the disbeliever for payment Deuteronomy 15, 3

529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral (“When you lend your fellow [believer] any item, you shall not enter his home to take his security“) Deuteronomy 24, 10

530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed Deuteronomy 24, 13

531. Not to delay its return when needed Deuteronomy 24, 12

532. Not to demand collateral from a widow Deuteronomy 24, 17

533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed (necessary to survive) for preparing food Deuteronomy 24, 6

534. Not to lend with interest toward believers Leviticus 25, 37

535. Not to borrow with interest toward believers Deuteronomy 23, 20

536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note (“not to behave toward him as lender”) Exodus 22, 24

537. Lend to and borrow from gentiles (disbelievers, idolaters) with interest Deuteronomy 23, 21

538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier Exodus 22, 8

539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance (succession) Numbers 27, 8

540. Appoint judges “and law enforcement officials for yourself in all your cities that the LORD, your GOD, is giving you” Deuteronomy 16, 18

541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure (“not favor persons in judgment“) just trust GOD (“you shall not fear any man, for the judgment is upon the LORD“) Deuteronomy 1, 17

542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement Exodus 23, 2

543. [In capital cases] the court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required Exodus 23, 2

544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases Exodus 23, 2

545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning Deuteronomy 22, 24

546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning Leviticus 20, 14

547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword Exodus 21, 20

548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation Leviticus 20, 10

549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry Deuteronomy 21, 22

550. Bury the executed [as well as all deceased] on the same day they are killed Deuteronomy 21, 23

551. Not to delay burial overnight Deuteronomy 21, 23

552. The court must not let the sorcerer live Exodus 22, 17

553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer Deuteronomy 25, 2

554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes Deuteronomy 25, 3

555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence (“Distance yourself from a false matter; and do not kill a truly innocent person or one who has been declared innocent“) Exodus 23, 7

556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime Deuteronomy 22, 26

557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial Deuteronomy 19, 13

558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial (“you shall judge your fellow with righteousness.“) Leviticus 19, 15

559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial Leviticus 19, 15

560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor Exodus 23, 6

561. A judge must not pervert justice Leviticus 19, 15

562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a stranger or orphan Deuteronomy 24, 17

563. Judge righteously Leviticus 19, 15

564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment Deuteronomy 1, 17

565. Judges must not accept bribes (as payoff) Exodus 23, 8

566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present Exodus 23, 1

567. Not to curse judges Exodus 22, 27

568. Not to curse a Prince (the ruler, head of state, the leader of the Sanhedrin) among your people Exodus 22, 27

569. Not to curse any upstanding (righteous) believer Leviticus 19, 14

570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court Leviticus 5, 1

571. Carefully interrogate the witness Deuteronomy 13, 15

572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes Numbers 35, 30

573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness Deuteronomy 19, 15

574. Transgressors must not testify Exodus 23, 1

575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify Deuteronomy 24, 16

576. Not to testify falsely (the 9th Commandment) Exodus 20, 13

577. Punish the false witnesses with the same punishment they were seeking for the defendant Deuteronomy 19, 19

578. Act according to the ruling of the Law Deuteronomy 17, 11

579. Not to deviate from the word of the Law Deuteronomy 17, 11

580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations (“You shall neither add to it [the Law]”)Deuteronomy 13, 1

581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part Deuteronomy 13, 1

582. Not to curse your father or mother Exodus 21, 17

583. Not to strike your father or mother Exodus 21, 15

584. Respect your father and mother Exodus 20, 12

585. Fear your father and mother Leviticus 19, 3

586. Not to be a rebellious son Deuteronomy 21, 20

587. Mourn for relatives Leviticus 10, 19

588. The priests (kohanim) must not defile himself through contact with a relative Leviticus 21, 11

589. The priests (kohanim) must not enter under the same roof as a corpse Leviticus 21, 11

590. The priests (kohanim) must not defile himself for anyone except relatives Leviticus 21, 1

591. Appoint a king from Israel (“you shall set a king over you, one whom the LORD, your GOD, chooses; from among your brothers, you shall set a king over yourself”) Deuteronomy 17, 15

592. Not to appoint a foreigner (“you shall not appoint a foreigner over yourself, [appoint] one who is not your brother.”) Deuteronomy 17, 15

593. The king must not have too many wives Deuteronomy 17, 17

594. The king must not have too many horses Deuteronomy 17, 16

595. The king must not have too much silver and gold Deuteronomy 17, 17

596. Destroy the seven Canaanite (disbelivers that lives aroud the Holy Land) nations (“The Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites“) Deuteronomy 20, 17

597. Not to let any of those nations remain alive Deuteronomy 20, 16

598. Wipe out the descendants of Amalek Deuteronomy 25, 19

599. Remember what Amalek did to the Israelites Deuteronomy 25, 17

600. Not to forget Amalek’s atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert Deuteronomy 25, 19

601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt Deuteronomy 17, 16

602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms Deuteronomy 20, 10

603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them Deuteronomy 23:7

604. Not to destroy fruit trees even during the siege Deuteronomy 20, 19

605. Prepare latrines outside the army camps Deuteronomy 23, 13

606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with (“and it shall be, when you sit down outside [to relieve yourself], you shall dig with it, and you shall return and cover your excrement.“)  Deuteronomy 23, 14

607. Appoint a kohen (priest) to speak with the soldiers during the war Deuteronomy 20, 2

608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions Deuteronomy 24, 5

609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military Deuteronomy 24, 5

610. Not to panic and retreat during battle Deuteronomy 20, 3

611. Keep the laws of the captive woman Deuteronomy 21, 11

612. Not to sell her into slavery Deuteronomy 21, 14

613. Not to retain her for servitude after having relations with her Deuteronomy 21, 14

 


[note a] Sebbene molte delle mitzvot non possono essere osservate oggigiorno, in seguito alla distruzione del Tempio di Gerusalemme, sebbene mantengano ancora un significato religioso. Secondo il calcolo standard, ci sono 77 comandamenti positivi e 194 negativi che possono essere osservati oggi, di cui ci sono 26 comandi che si applicano solo all’interno della Terra Santa (di Israele). Inoltre, vi sono alcuni comandamenti da cui le donne sono esenti (esempi includono shofar, sukkah, lulav, tzitzit e tefillin). Altri dipendono dallo status speciale di una persona nel giudaismo (come i sacerdoti “kohanim”), mentre altri si applicano solo agli uomini o solo alle donne.


Bibliography

  • Eisenberg, Ronald L. The 613 Mitzvot: A Contemporary Guide to the Commandments of Judaism Schreiber Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-88400-303-5
  • Moses Maimonides, translation by Charles Ber Chavel and Moses ibn Tibbon. The book of divine commandments (the Sefer Ha-mitzvoth of Moses Maimonides) London: Soncino Press, 1940.

 

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